Covington & Lexington Railroad

Reached Lexington:  1853

Route:  Lexington to Paris, extension from Paris to Covington

Corporate Names:

Licking & Lexington (1847 – 1849)

Maysville & Lexington (1850 – 1876)

Covington & Lexington (1849 – 1861)

Kentucky Central (1861 – 1891)[1]

Louisville & Nashville (1891 – 1983)

Seaboard System (1983 – 1986)

CSX Transportation (1986 – 2003)

R J Corman (2003 – Present)

The Licking & Lexington Railroad Company was formed on March 1, 1847 to “construct and maintain a railway, with a double or single track, with such appendages as any be deemed necessary for the convenient use of same, commencing at any eligible point in or near the town of Newport, in Campbell county, or Covington, in Kenton county, thence by the most practicable route, through or near Falmouth, Cynthiana, and Paris, to the city of Lexington.”   The route became known as the “Licking River Route,” which general followed the Licking River to the vicinity of Falmouth, then up the south fork of the Licking River to Cynthiana, then over land to Paris and then Lexington.[i]

The company’s capital stock was authorized at $1,000,000, divided into 20,000 shares, with a par value of $50 per share.  The Commissioners from Fayette County were Henry Duncan, Leslie Combs, Benjamin Gratz, John B. Tilford and Robert S. Todd of Lexington.  In addition, commissioners were appointed for Bourbon, Harrison, Pendleton and Campbell Counties.[ii]

The proposed line intended to connect the trade from Central Kentucky, with the Cincinnati and the Ohio Valley.  In addition, the river connections of either Covington or Newport, would allow the company to tap into the southern markets.  Fayette County and the City of Covington authorized the purchase of $200,000 and $100,000, respectively, in capital stock in the new line.  However, since the northern terminal was not specified, investors from both Covington and Newport were cautious about investing.  In addition, economic problems restricted the money supply and curtailed investing.  Only twelve shares were subscribed over three days by the public in Covington.[iii]  With the combination of economy and terminal uncertainty, the company had difficulty raising capital and remained only a charter.

Maysville & Lexington:

The Maysville & Lexington Railroad Company was chartered by the Legislature on March 4, 1850.  The line intended to maintain the existing trade with Eastern markets, shipped downriver to Maysville (on the Ohio River) and then to Lexington and Central Kentucky.  The Commissioners from Fayette County were Henry Bell, Leslie Combs, Benjamin Gratz, John Norton and George Robertson.  In addition, commissioners were appointed for Mason and Bourbon Counties.  The corporation was authorized to construct a railway from “the city of Maysville, in Mason county, thence by the most practicable route to or near the city of Lexington.”  The authorized capital was $1,000,000, divided into 20,000 shares with a par value of $50 per share.[iv]

During July 1850, L. L. Robinson, Chief Engineer, completed the survey of the route from Maysville to Lexington.[v]  The survey proposed two routes through Bourbon County, Paris to Millersburg or North Middleton to Carlisle.[vi]  The final selection was based upon the subscriptions from each town.  The City of Lexington subscribed $200,000 in capital stock in the railroad as an inducement to develop the road.  This subscription was approved in March 1851, by the voters with 1,270 for to 658 against the bond issue.  [vii]

The company optimistically proposed to have the line under construction from Lexington in May 1851, to Licking River in November 1852 and to Maysville in January 1854.[viii]  The company’s directors were Henry Waller, J. W. Cochran, F. T. Hord, A. J. January, W. S. Allen and Christopher Shultz.[ix]

In 1853, the company built the line from Lexington to Paris (eighteen miles).  In December 1853, the first train completed the Lexington to Paris run.  Two roundtrips were scheduled daily.[x]  In 1854, further construction from Paris to Maysville was delay by financial problems and later the Civil War.  This Lexington to Paris right-of-way was leased in 1854 to the Covington & Lexington Railroad.[xi]  In January 1855, the Lexington to Paris line was widen to accommodate the locomotives and rolling stock of the Covington line.  The consolidated line in 1855 began operating without transfers (at Paris) from Lexington to the Ohio River, at Covington.[xii]

Covington & Lexington Railroad:

In 1849, the Licking & Lexington was rechartered as the Covington & Lexington Railroad.  Covington was set as the northern terminal.  Colonel John S. Morgan was elected President.  In November 1849, G. E. Sellers, Chief Engineer, completed the survey of the proposed route to Lexington from Covington.[xiii]  During April 1850, the subscription books for the company were opened at the Chiles (Phoenix) Hotel, with George Robertson, Henry Bell, Madison C. Johnson, John Norton, Benjamin Gratz and Leslie Combs commissioners.[xiv]

In September 1850, the railroad contracted for the first 20 miles of the line from Covington, with additional contracts for 46 miles to Cynthiana under review.[xv]  During November 1850, the company began discussing with the Maysville & Lexington Railroad the consolidation of the two lines from Paris to Lexington.[xvi]  In early 1851, the City of Covington purchased $100,000, later raised to $300,000 in stock.

In July 1851, construction finally began on the seventy-eight mile route from Covington to Paris.  The route ran as specified in the charter from Paris to Cynthiana, Falmouth to Covington.  In September 1851, the City of Lexington purchased $200,000 in capital stock in the company.  In addition, Bourbon and Pendleton Counties contributed $100,000 and $50,000, respectively.[xvii]

During 1852, the company issued $400,000 in first mortgage bonds at 7% interest.  During October 1853, the line was completed from Covington to Falmouth.  In January 1853, Mortimer M. Benton replaced Morgan (after his death in 1852) as President of the company.  His salary was set at $3,000 per annum.  The company estimated that the cost to complete the line from Falmouth to Paris at $551,000, with an addition $196,360 needed for equipment.[xviii]

In May 1854, the line was completed to Paris and the company began operating regularly scheduled trains.  At Paris, the line was forced to switch to smaller cars from the run into Lexington.  The width of the Maysville & Lexington line prohibited the larger cars of the Covington & Lexington from running over the formers track.  One of the main sources of revenue was the shipment of livestock (principally hogs and cattle) from Central Kentucky to the stockyards along the river.  On December 20, 1854, the Covington line formerly agreed to lease the Lexington to Paris line for eighteen months, at $1,125 per month.[2]  The first five months rent was reserved for improvements (including conversion to broad gauge), including increasing the width of the leased line. [xix]

During 1855, its first full year of operations, the company generated $264,973.66 in revenue and profits of $138,694.11 from operations.  These earnings failed to cover the $177,000 due in interest on the two bond issues.  The company issued $1,000,000 in second mortgage bonds, at 7% interest, during 1855 to cover operating expenses and fund the remaining improvements and construction.  This issue was sold at a 90% discount from face value to local investors (primarily officers and directors).  The officers and directors were Mortimer M. Benton (President), E. B. Clark, Jr. (Secretary), Samuel J. Walker (Treasurer), Charles A. Withers (Superintendent), Joseph B. Casey, Augusta Robbins, Frederick Gedge and John T. Levis.  All were from Northern Kentucky or Cincinnati.[xx]

In March 1856, the Legislature in Frankfort authorized the Covington & Lexington (including the leased Maysville & Lexington) and Lexington & Danville Railroads to adopt the trade name Kentucky Central Railroad.  Both companies remained separate legal entities, but operated the line jointly.  The Covington & Lexington owned approximately ten percent of the stock in the Lexington & Danville.[xxi]  During 1856, the company authorized $520,500 in new bonds, secured by the income of the railroad, to cover further shortfalls.[xxii]  In December 1856, Mortimer M. Benton was replaced by John T. Levis as President.[xxiii]

During the fall of 1857, the company suspended payment on the inferior bonds for a year.  The financial conditions of the company were improving, but the expenditures for improvements and interest on bonds were still causing a deficit.  During 1854, 1855 and 1857 the operating earnings of the company were $87,964.38, $138,694.11 and $205,302.49, respectively.[xxiv]  Between Cincinnati and Central Kentucky, passenger traffic increased during this period by five hundred percent and freight traffic increased one thousand percent.  See Appendix I – Traffic and Earnings Statement.  In December 1857, John T. Levis, C. A. Withers and George M Clark were reappointed President, Superintendent and Secretary / Train Master, respectively.  Their respective salaries were $2,000, $2,000 and $1,500.

During 1857–58, the railroad located its roundhouse and engine shop in Lexington, on Georgetown Road (near the Lunatic Asylum) and its depot on the west end of Short Street, between Payne and Dodge Streets (in a valley near the Lexington Cemetery).  In Covington, the line located its depot at Eight and Washington Street.

In early 1858, the company authorized a third mortgage bond issue in the amount of $600,000, at 7½ percent.  These bonds were sold at a 65 percent discount to Samuel J. Walker and James W. Walker.  The Walker brothers then resold a portion of these bonds to the public.  One purchaser was Robert B. Bowler, who purchased $100,000 in these bonds.  Bowler was elected to the Board of Directors of the line.[xxv]

In May 1858, Bowler proposed to the Board of Directors, that the interest on the first and second mortgage bonds be deferred, to finance $800,000 in improvements.  He also proposed that the interest be paid on the third mortgage bonds.  Since most of the first and second mortgage bonds were in friendly hands, local investors and directors, it was assumed that these investors would allow the company time to pay the accrued interest on the superior bonds.  The previous year the company had revenues of $437,579 and operating profit of $227,434.  Both improvements over the prior year.[xxvi]

Schedule, 1859

However, on November 1, 1858, James Winslow, Trustee for the Second Mortgage Bonds, filed suit in Lexington to have a receiver appointed for the company. Winslow owned second mortgage bonds.  In August 1859, the court ordered the sale of the company assets to public auction.  The auction was set for the next month.[xxvii]

In October 1859, the railroad was sold at public auction in Lexington, to satisfy the first and second mortgage bonds in the amount of $2,533,621.43 (first mortgage bonds of 1,813,683 and the second mortgage bonds of $719,938).  William A. Dudley was appointed Commissioner of the auction.  The Income and Third Mortgage Bonds were worthless.  There were four groups bidding on the company, they were: 1) Leslie Combs, David A. Sayre and Henry Bell for the Lexington & Frankfort, 2) investors from Bourbon and Harrison Counties, 3) New York interests, which owned the Maysville & Lexington and 4) syndicate of Covington interests headed by William H. Gedge.  After 133 rounds the Gedge interest won, with a bid for $2,125,000.  By the terms of the lawsuit, the winning bidder only had to cover the $70,000 in interest payments that was in arrears.[xxviii]

Later, it was disclosed that Robert B. Bowler was the true leader of this syndicate.  On November 10, 1859, Bowler became President of the railroad.  The original stockholders filed suit against Bowler for misdealing.  Bowlers had reputed said prior to the sale that at $1.5 to $1.6 million that it was a bad deal.  After the auction, Bowler offered to sale the company back for $500,000.  The lawsuit was dismissed on a technicality and the company continued to operate under the Covington & Lexington charter.[xxix]

Kentucky Central Railroad Association:

On January 1, 1861, the Kentucky Central Railroad Association was formed to acquire the charter and assets of the Covington line (including the leased Maysville right-of-way).  The stockholders were Bowler, Richard Stowers, William H. Gedge, James C. Gedge and John T. Levis.  Bowler owned 9,200 shares, with the other four each owning 200 shares.[xxx]  The company purchased the Covington & Lexington Railroad’s assets for $2,837,000, netting Bowler at least $712,000 in profits.[xxxi]  The company was restructured with additional investors on January 30, 1863, with Bowler owning third-fifth of the stock.  New investors included Quincy A. Keith, William Ernst, John W. Stevenson, William H. Gedge, James C. Gedge and Richard Stowers.  These transactions were finalized in 1863, after court approval.[xxxii]

Map, circa 1860

Schedule, circa 1860

During the Civil War, the Kentucky Central was a frequent target of Confederate raiders, who burned the company’s bridges and destroyed its tracks.  The railroad was an important link in the Federal supply chain from Cincinnati to the armies in the South.  In 1862, Confederate raiders under John Hunt Morgan destroyed the Cynthiana depot and bridges along the line.

In 1863, the Federal government fortified the Kentucky Central from Lexington to Covington, by building blockhouses and earthworks along the line at bridges and other important locations.  During Morgan’s last raid in June 1864, the railroad depot and hundreds of cords of wood at the railroad’s siding in Lexington (near the Lunatic Asylum) were set on fire.

In July 1865 Bowler died.  After his death, the original stockholders refiled suit against Bowler’s estate to void the 1859 sale.[xxxiii]  In 1868, George H. Pendleton[3] became President of the Kentucky Central.  Pendleton was Bowler’s brother-in-law  and executor of this estate.  He served for the next ten years until 1879.  In 1868, directors included Pendleton, John W. Stevenson, William Ernst (Treasurer) and James C. Gedge of Covington and Quincy A. Keith of Cincinnati.  The other officers included H. P. Rawson (Superintendent and General Ticket Agent), H. J. Lewis (General Freight Agent) and P. R. Ledyard (Road Master).[xxxiv]

Northern Division Stock Certificate, circa 1870

Maysville & Lexington (Northern Division):

On January 21, 1868, the Maysville & Lexington line was divided into two separate corporations – the Maysville & Lexington, Southern Division (Lexington to Paris) and Maysville & Lexington, Northern Division (Paris to Maysville).  This allowed the Northern Division to mortgage its route to raise funds for construction for the seventy mile extension from Paris to Maysville. [xxxv]

Directors of the Northern Division included William H. McGranaghan, Andrew M. January, James H. Hall, Lewis H. Long, James Barbour, Abner Hord and Alexander K. Marshall.  Hiram T. Pearce and Thomas J. Glenn were respectively President and Chief Engineer.  The division was headquartered in Maysville.[xxxvi]

The first train ran from Maysville to Lexington in March 1872.[xxxvii]  This extension was completed in 1873.  Financial problems during the “Panic of 1873” forced the Northern Division into receivership in 1874.  In 1876, the Southern Division reacquired the Northern Division and the two lines were consolidated as Kentucky Central, Northern Division.[xxxviii]

Kentucky Central Railroad Company:

The Kentucky Central Railroad Company was chartered on February 22, 1871, to assume “all the rights, privileges and franchise of the old Covington & Lexington Railroad.”  This incorporation settled to questions of the railroad operating under the original 1849 charter.

Kentucky Central Locomotive #7 (2-6-0), built by Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1882     <Baldwin Works>

In 1871, the original stockholders in their suit against Bowler’s estate again lost on a technicality.  In 1873, the Court of Appeals reversed the lower court and found against Bowler and for the stockholders.  Bowler was held as a director to be responsible to the stockholders.  The parties negotiated a settlement.  The terms included: 1) Covington, Cincinnati and Pendleton County received preferred stock in the amount of their subscriptions, Covington & Lexington stockholders received common stock equal to 75% of their original shares, Peter Zinn and the other attorneys received $1,000,000 in common stock and the Bowler estate received $2,400,000 in common stock.  The company was valued at $5,000,000.[xxxix]  On July 7, 1875, the settlement was finalized and the new corporation established.[xl]

Circular, circa 1884

Around 1880, control of the road was in the hands of Collis P. Huntington.  Huntington was one of the era’s robber barons, with major railroad holdings (including the unfinished Elizabethtown, Lexington & Big Sandy and Chesapeake & Ohio Railways).  With the Kentucky Central, Huntington connected the Chesapeake & Ohio to Cincinnati, by routing trains from Norfolk, Virginia to Huntington, West Virginia, then via Maysville, Paris and Lexington to Covington.  On July 10, 1881, the line converted to standard gauge.[xli]

Kentucky Central Locomotive #27 (0-6-0), built by Brooks (American Locomotive Works) in 1883    <L&N Photograph>

In addition, during 1881, the Kentucky Central began expanding its right-of-way southward, from Paris toward the Louisville & Nashville’s Knoxville tracks at the Sinks of Roundstone (near Livingston), Kentucky.  This extension was funded in 1881 by issuing $4,334,000 in bonds (which were discounted to 66%).  The work of laying the track began in 1883 from Paris to Richmond, then toward the Sinks. The extension was about 75 miles in length, which required 16 tunnels and a major bridge over the Kentucky River (at Ford).  The extension was completed in 1885.[xlii]

In 1882, the Kentucky Central line was extended into downtown Lexington, from Short Street to Merino (joining with the Elizabethtown, Lexington & Big Sandy).  Passenger service at Payne Street Station was discontinued and the railroad established a new passenger station on Water Street, behind the Phoenix Hotel.  This station was also used jointly by the Chesapeake & Ohio.

In 1884, the company leased 34 miles of track from the Louisville & Nashville from Richmond to Stanford for $24,000 per annum.  They also had the right to purchase the section for $400,000.  The company also obtained trackage rights over the Louisville & Nashville from Roundstone to Jellico, Tennessee.  At Jellico the company connected to the East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia Railroad.

During the 1880s, the Kentucky Central began running excursions to the Deering Campground, near Berea, on the weekends.  During the summer months, over one thousands tickets were sold weekly for the excursion.[xliii]  In 1882, the directors were Melville R. Ingalls (President), Elliott H. Pendleton, Charlton Alexander (of, Lexington), Collis P. Huntington, B. S. Cunningham, John Echols (Vice President) and George Bliss.

Kentucky Central Railway Company:

In January 1886, the road was once more forced into bankruptcy and on June 7, 1887, the company was reorganized as the Kentucky Central Railway Company.  Construction expenditures for the Livingston extension exceeded the earnings capacity of the company.

Stock Certificate, circa 1887

On Christmas Day 1888, the line opened a bridge across to Ohio River and terminated in Cincinnati.  This bridge was owned jointly with the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway.  In September 1891, the railroad was sold to the Louisville & Nashville Railroad for $3,250,000 (and assumption of bonds) and its operations consolidated.[xliv]

Kentucky Central Railway Bond issued to reorganize the company in 1887

In 1951, the route between Bryan Station Cutoff, outside of Lexington, at Chicle to Paris was abandoned.  In 1968, the downtown connection (from Water Street to the Belt Line, above Fourth Street) was also abandoned.

In 1983 and 1986, the line became part of the Seaboard System and CSX Transportation, respectively.  In 2003, R J Corman acquired the portion from Lexington to Bryan Station Cutoff as part of their Winchester line.

_______________

Stations, Depots and Yards:

Depot – in 1855, the Covington & Lexington Railroad built a combined passenger station and freight depot, located on the west end of Short Street, between Payne and Dodge Streets (in a valley near the Lexington Cemetery).  The line also had a small freight yard located there.  Today, the depot is used for commercial purposes by Harper Roofing.[xlv]

Passenger Station - built in 1881 behind the Phoenix Hotel, on Limestone at Water Street.[xlvi]  The depot also served the Elizabethtown, Lexington & Big Sandy Railroad (later Chesapeake & Ohio) and Louisville Southern (from 1889 until 1892).[xlvii]  Replaced in 1907 by the new Union Station.

Roundhouse – the railroad maintained a roundhouse and engine repair yard, near the Eastern State Lunatic Asylum (between Georgetown, Todd, Third and Fourth Streets) on Newtown Pike (Old Henry Hill Road).  Built around 1854 by the Covington & Lexington Railroad, it was abandoned after the Civil War (when the Kentucky Central relocated the roundhouse to Covington).  Sometimes referred to as the “old depot.”[xlviii]

_______________

Bryan - a flag stop on the Kentucky Central Railroad, on Bryan Station Pike, east of Lexington in Fayette County.

Bryan Station Cutoff - a cutoff line built in 1914, to connect the Paris (formerly Kentucky Central) and Winchester (formerly Kentucky Union) lines of the Louisville & Nashville.

Chicle - was the junction of the Louisville & Nashville’s Paris line with the Bryan Station Cutoff.  Named after a racehorse.

Chicle Cutoff, circa 1940s   <Sulzer>

Bryan Station Cutoff - a cutoff line built in 1914, to connect the Paris (formerly Kentucky Central) and Winchester (formerly Kentucky Union) lines of the Louisville & Nashville.

Chicle - was the junction of the Louisville & Nashville’s Paris line with the Bryan Station Cutoff.  Named after a racehorse.

Elmendorf - a spur on the Louisville & Nashville (Kentucky Central line) line for the Elmendorf Farm, owned by James B. A. Haggin (a wealthy silver baron and thoroughbred breeder).

Elmendorf Siding, circa 1940s   <Sulzer>

Hamilton - a flag stop on the Kentucky Central line, about five miles out of Lexington.

Muir Station - a station on the Kentucky Central Railway, between Lexington and Paris, in eastern Fayette County. Named after John Muir, an early land owner in the area.

Muir Station, circa 1940s   <Sulzer>

[1] In 1856, the Covington & Lexington adopted the trade name Kentucky Central Railroad.  From 1861 to 1891, incorporated as the Kentucky Central Railroad Association (1861 – 1875), Railroad Company (1875 – 1887) and Railway Company (1887 – 1891).

[2] During 1857, this lease was extended for ten years.

[3] Pendleton was a Member of Congress (1857 – 1864), Democratic Vice Presidential Candidate (1864), Presidential nominee (1868) and Senator from Ohio (1879 – 1885).  He was investigated by Congress in 1873 for bribing the Secretary of War.  In 1871, the new Secretary of War paid $148,000.82 to settle claims by the railroad for shipping supplies and troops during the Civil War.  These claims had been refused by prior administrations.  Pendleton paid himself a fee of $80,000 and credited only $68,002.82 to the railroad.  It was alleged that he had paid $26,000 to the wife of the Secretary of War.

[i] Observer & Reporter, Lexington, March 20, 1847, page 3, column 5 and April 3, 1847, page 3, column 3 -4.

[ii] Acts of Kentucky, 1847, page 40 - 46.

[iii] Gastright, Joseph F., The Making of the Kentucky Central, Kenton County Historical Society Quarterly Review, Covington, July 1983, page 1 – 2, Spring 1984, page 1 – 3 and Spring 1985, page 1 – 4.

[iv] Acts of Kentucky, 1850, page 296 – 305 and Gastright, July 1983, page 1 – 2.

[v] Kentucky Statesman, Lexington, July 27, 1850, page 3, column 5 and September 14, 1850, page 4, column 3.

[vi] Kentucky Statesman, Lexington, September 14, 1850, page 4, column 3.

[vii] Kentucky Statesman, Lexington, January 4, 1851, page 3, column 1, March 20, 1851, page 3, column 1 and April 16, 1851, page 3, column 4.

[viii] Kentucky Statesman, Lexington, April 16, 1851, page 3, column 4.

[ix] Perrin, page 86.

[x] Kentucky Statesman, Lexington, December 13, 1853, page 3, column 4 and December 23, 1853, page 3, column 1.

[xi] Perrin, page 85 - 86, Kleber, page 491-92 and Sulzer, Elmer G., Ghost Railroads of Kentucky, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1968, page 167 - 173.

[xii] Kentucky Statesman, Lexington, January 12, 1855, page 3, column 3.

[xiii] Observer & Reporter, Lexington, November 24, 1849, page 3, column 2 and February 6, 1850, page 3, column 2.

[xiv] Kentucky Statesman, Lexington, April 3, 1850, page 3, column 7.

[xv] Kentucky Statesman, Lexington, October 19, 1850, page 3, column 7.

[xvi] Kentucky Statesman, Lexington, November 6, 1850, page 3, column 1.

[xvii] Zinn, Peter, Leading and Select Cases on Trusts, Robert Clarke & Company, Cincinnati, 1873, Page 469, Perrin, page 85 - 86, Kleber, page 491 - 492 and Sulzer, page 167 - 173.

[xviii] Zinn, page 469 and Gastright, July 1983, page 1 – 2.

[xix] Kentucky Statesman, Lexington, January 12, 1855, page 3, column 3 and Gastright, July 1983, page 1 – 2.

[xx] Zinn, page 469 and Gastright, Spring 1984, page 1 – 3.

[xxi] Herr, page 72.

[xxii] Zinn, page 469 and Gastright, Spring 1984, page 1 – 3.

[xxiii] Zinn, page 469 – 470.

[xxiv] Gastright, Spring 1984, page 1 – 3.

[xxv] Zinn, page 469.

[xxvi] Zinn, page 469 and Gastright, Spring 1984, page 1 – 3.

[xxvii] Kleber, page 491 – 492, Gastright, Spring 1985, page 1 – 4 and Poor, 1868 – 69, page 170, 1874 – 75, page 207 – 08, 1881, page 463 – 65, 1882, page 495 – 97 and 1885, page 499 – 501.

[xxviii] Kentucky Statesman, Lexington, October 7, 1859, page 2, column 2.

[xxix] Gastright, Spring 1985, page 1 – 4.

[xxx] Gastright, Spring 1985, page 1 – 4, Perrin, page 85 - 86 and Sulzer, page 167 - 173.

[xxxi] Zinn, page 471.

[xxxii] Gastright, Spring 1985, page 1 – 4 and Herr, page 71.

[xxxiii] Kleber, page 491 - 492.

[xxxiv] Poor, 1868-69, page 170.

[xxxv] Poor, 1868-69, page 379.

[xxxvi] Poor, 1868-69, page 379.

[xxxvii] Lexington Press, March 5, 1872, page 4, column 1.

[xxxviii] Daily Press, Lexington, January 21, 1877, page 4, column 2 and Herr, page 71.

[xxxix] Gastright, Spring 1985, page 1 – 4.

[xl] Herr, page 71 and Sulzer, page 167 - 173.

[xli] Lexington Transcript, July 5, 1881, page 4, column 1.

[xlii] Herr, page 71 - 72 and Kleber, page 491 - 492.

[xliii] Lexington Leader, July 23, 1888, page 4, column 5.

[xliv] Herr, page 71 - 72, Kleber, page 491 - 492 and Sulzer, page 167 - 173.

[xlv] Deed Book 32, page 131, 293 and 374, Fayette County Clerk’s Office.

[xlvi] Lexington Transcript, August 16, 1881 and September 7, 1881, page 4, column 2.

[xlvii] Lexington Transcript, August 6, 1881, page 4, column 1, September 7, 1881, page 4, column 2, February 2, 1882, page 4, column 2 and March 31, 1882, page 1, column 5 and Lexington Leader, January 12, 1892, page 1, column 3.

[xlviii] Lexington Transcript, August 9, 1881, page 4, column 3.

References: 
William M. Ambrose, Bluegrass Railways, Limestone Press, Lexington, 2009.
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